Carmody, T. P., Duncan, C. L., Huggins, J., Solkowitz, S. N., Lee, S. K., Reyes, N., Mozgai, S., ... Simon, J. A. (January 01, 2013). Telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for pain management among older military veterans: A randomized trial. Psychological Services, 10(3), 265-275.
This study investigated the effectiveness of telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) in the management of chronic pain with older military veterans enrolled in VA primary-care clinics. We conducted a randomized clinical trial comparing T-CBT with telephone-delivered pain education (T-EDU). A total of 98 military veterans with chronic pain were enrolled in the study and randomized into one of two treatment conditions. Study participants were recruited from primary-care clinics at an urban VA medical center and affiliated VA community-based outpatient clinics (CBOCs). Pain management outcomes were measured at mid-treatment (10 weeks), post-treatment (20 weeks), 3-month follow-up (32 weeks), and 6-month follow-up (46 weeks). No significant differences were found between the two treatment groups on any of the outcome measures. Both treatment groups reported small but significant increases in level of physical and mental health, and reductions in pain and depressive symptoms. Improvements in all primary outcome measures were mediated by reductions in catastrophizing. Telephone-delivered CBT and EDU warrant further study as easily accessible interventions for rural-living older individuals with chronic pain.